作为测试策略的一个重要部分，硬件在环测试方法能够对嵌入在真实仿真环境中的真实ECU进行可重复的测试。因此，我们可以实现全天候的实验室全面测试，缩短了验证时间，并增加了测试场景的范围。此外，HIL能够在闭环和开环测试系统（如数据回放测试）中测试极端测试场景，而无需担心被测设备或环境的安全问题。E/E 架构实现了高度网联，电动汽车不断发展，ADAS/AD主动安全系统也日益复杂。因此HIL测试对于确保整个系统的可靠性至关重要。dSPACE HIL解决方案包括从组件到系统集成测试各个应用，覆盖从自动驾驶到零排放的所有车辆领域。
Solution Offer at a Glance
- Scalable real-time platforms
- Support of latest automotive bus and network standards
- Comprehensive simulation models for applications ranging from combustion engines to autonomous vehicles and electric vehicles
- Complete and fully automatable software toolchain to support continuous integration among others
- High-fidelity solutions for e-mobility applications
- Realistic camera, lidar, and radar models can be calculated in real time with dSPACE HIL systems.
Deep Dive – Test Phases and Test Systems in HIL Simulations
The development of automotive electronic systems can be divided into three main test phases: function testing; ECU testing, including perception and fusion; and ECU domain and network testing. Since each test phase focuses on different goals, the test system requirements differ as well. The dSPACE HIL systems can be adapted to each phase to provide maximum support.
Function testing aims at testing single or few functions, including their interaction with ECU basic software. Since this kind of testing is typically an integral part of function development rather than final release testing, its focus lies on experimental usage, without systematic test automation. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test systems for function testing therefore require versatile bus and network interfaces, restbus simulation on the behavior and protocol levels, or design-for-test interfaces (e.g., XCP). If you want to test functions for autonomous driving, the test system must be able to generate sensor data on the object list level. These types of tests are often performed by the function developers themselves. Therefore, the test systems must fit on a developer’s desk.
ECU Testing Including Perception and Fusion
Typical applications for ECU tests range from software integration testing over to fail-safe and fail-operational testing, to ECU release testing. For ADAS and AD ECUs, this can even include perception and fusion algorithms also have to be verified. Testing is therefore highly automated and based on ECU requirements to cover the high number of variants. Scenario-based testing is also useful to address the many test variants, particularly in combination with automatic scenario generation.
Test systems for ECU testing require scalable I/O and bus/network interfaces, restbus simulation on the behavior and protocol level, and extensive manipulation and test options for buses and networks. Scenarios for autonomous driving are often tested using raw sensor data. These tasks require comprehensive plant models and simulation performance that can be increased accordingly. Ideally, the test system functions can be adapted to changing project requirements.
ECU Domain and Network Testing
ECU domain and network testing is characterized by end-to-end testing of distributed functions. This includes fail-safe and fail-operational tests as well as vehicle network testing, such as sleep or wake-up tests. The systems often run highly automated test programs around the clock, made possible by comprehensive test management systems.
The need for an extensive range of I/O channels as well as bus and network interfaces is characteristic for these kinds of test systems. To handle complex models and scenarios, they also require strong simulation performance and multiprocessor capabilities. The systems process a multitude of plant models, from powertrain to air conditioning to window lifter models, to name but a few. To test systems for autonomous driving, sensor signals must be simulated on either the object list or raw data level, depending on the system architecture.
Components of a Hardware-in-the-Loop System
A typical HIL system for testing ECUs includes at least simulation hardware to connect the ECU to and simulation models for simulating the environment. Additionally, you use configuration software and visualization software for a graphically representation of the simulation scenario.