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ASM Combustion Engines

Real-Time-Capable Simulation Models for Combustion Engines

The ASM engine models are ideal for developing and testing engine and exhaust gas aftertreatment ECUs. They simulate a combustion engine, including all the necessary components, as a controlled system for the ECUs. There are models for diesel and gasoline engines with different injection systems and exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. The real-time simulations can be performed with mean-value models or with models of physical precision.  

  • ModelDesk Processing

    Support of ModelDesk processing as a successor of ASM Parameterization

  • A Moving Variety

    For commercial vehicles, diversity is a standard. Scania has a nearly endless selection of vehicle types and modular vehicle configurations. And the generic electronic control unit (ECU) system has just as many variants. In a new test lab, Scania shows how this system can be validated with reliability.

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  • Top Performer

    One thing is for certain: If you start a large high-performance gas engine with a suitable generator, you are the best-motorized employee on site – at an electric power of up to 4,500 kW. Such powerful machines are used primarily for the stationary generation of energy and heat. Caterpillar Energy Solutions developed an entirely new control to ensure that future energy plants remain effi cient, dynamic, and maintenance-friendly.

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  • Smooth Success

    Before they developed their new tractor transmission, CLAAS Industrietechnik (CIT) did not have any experience in model-based software development. In the end, the product surpassed even their highest expectations. Part of this success story: the powerful tools from dSPACE.

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  • Virtual Winter Tests

    No modern vehicle ever reaches the market without first undergoing exhaustive tests. And test vehicles alone are no longer enough to test the complex electronic control units. This job is performed by simulation models, which shift ECU development into the virtual reality of a virtual vehicle. Dr. Hagen Haupt, head of dSPACE's Modeling Group, explains how the dSPACE simulation models are meeting this challenge.

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Mean Value Models
A mean value model calculates the state variables averaged for the entire engine cycle of each cylinder individually. Rotation-angle-dependent variables, such as the torque, are superimposed onto the averaged variables for the selected cylinder via modulation.

Mean value models have excellent real-time behavior. They are accurate enough to give plausible signals to conventional engine controls, which makes it possible to check the ECUs’ functions and diagnostic capabilities.
In-Cylinder Models
In-cylinder models simulate the state variables of the combustion engine consistently at each time instance and synchronously to the crank angle. On real-time computers, they help calculate the thermodynamic processes in the cylinder and the gas mass flow through the intake and exhaust valves synchronously to the crankshaft rotation.


The quality that simulations reach with in-cylinder models is rather high. In-cylinder models provide crank-angle-synchronous representations of the effects of the combustion and gas exchange process for each cylinder. The models are also required for ECUs that evaluate the cylinder pressure and control each intake and exhaust valve individually in timing and lift.

Feature Gasoline Basic Gasoline Diesel InCylinder Gasoline InCylinder Diesel
No. of cylinders Unlimited 20 20 12 12
EGR Yes Yes Yes Yes
Map-based turbocharger Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Physical turbocharger Yes Yes Yes Yes
Common rail system Yes Yes Yes Yes
Pump nozzle Yes
Fuel injection Intake manifold Direct, intake manifold Direct Direct, intake manifold Direct
Wall film evaporation Yes Yes
Combustion modes Homogeneous Homogeneous, stratified Diffusion Homogeneous Diffusion
Exhaust system Basic variant Basic variant DPF, DOC 1) Basic variant DPF, DOC 1)
Soft ECU, engine Yes Yes 2) Yes 2) Yes 2) Yes 2)
Combustion simulation Mean value Mean value Mean value Physical Physical
Valve simulation Mean value Mean value Mean value Physical Physical
1) DPF: diesel particulate filter, DOC: diesel oxidation catalyst
2) Torque-based

ASM Engine Models

Overview of mean value models and InCylinder models.

ASM Gasoline Engine Basic

ASM Gasoline Engine Basic is a mean value engine model with torque modulation.

ASM Gasoline Engine

ASM Gasoline Engine is a mean value engine model with torque modulation and exhaust gas system.

ASM Diesel Engine

ASM Diesel Engine is a mean value engine model with torque modulation and exhaust gas system.

ASM Gasoline Engine InCylinder

ASM Gasoline Engine InCylinder is a real-time-capable gasoline engine model with in-cylinder pressure and temperature simulation.

ASM Diesel Engine InCylinder

ASM Diesel Engine InCylinder is a real-time-capable diesel engine model with in-cylinder pressure and temperature simulation.

Product Information