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SCALEXIO Fault Simulation

Hardware Components

The SCALEXIO FIU concept with an example selection of HighFlex I/O boards.

The SCALEXIO Failure Insertion Unit (FIU) consists of several components:

  • An onboard failure routing unit (FRU) on the I/O channels prepares fault simulation by switching the I/O channels to failrails. The FRU is available for each channel on the MultiCompact and HighFlex boards and uses relays to provide the features of the central failure simulation unit to each channel.
  • Depending on their properties, the channels are connected to the failure simulation system by the high-current (up to 80 A) or the low-capacitance (up to 1 A) failrail. The low-capacitance failrail for an optimized signal quality connects signal generation channels and bus channels to the central FIU. The high-current failrail connects signal measurement channels to the central FIU.
  • The central FIU is located on either the DS2642 FIU & Power Switch Board or the DS2680 I/O Unit. The central FIU uses semiconductor switches for switching the faults. It switches very fast, which makes it possible to simulate loose contacts or insert faults for a very precise duration.
  • The failrail segment switch is used to switch selected segments into the failrails for fault simulation. This way, the conducting capacity can be minimized to avoid signal corruption, even for large simulation systems that have a high number of inputs/outputs or that are distributed across several cabinets.


Available Fault Types

Fault Type Fault on Single Signals Fault on Several Signals
Open circuit

1 channel

All channels1)
Short circuit to ground or UBAT 1 channel Up to 10 channels1)2)
Short between channels 2 channel Up to 10 channels1)2)
Fault with pulsed switching -
1) Requires the option “Activation by FRU relay” and is only possible on I/O channels without current enhancement.
2) Depending on the ampacity of the failrail.

License Concept

The SCALEXIO HighFlex and MultiCompact boards include a fault simulation (FS) function. You need an additional FS license to activate the fault simulation. The FS license will be checked at the host PC. Each license can be used for one SCALEXIO system. The licenses are scaled for fault simulation with different numbers of I/O channels capable of fault simulations. The fault simulation is configured in ConfigurationDesk, so you need the appropriate SCALEXIO Failure Simulation license for the number of I/O functions that are mapped to channels with an FRU that you use in your real-time application. The FS license is needed only for running the simulation, not for configuring the I/O channels with ConfigurationDesk.

Tracing FIU States

The diagnostic functions of ECUs have to detect each fault within a specified time. To help test an ECU’s diagnostic functions, SCALEXIO provides FIU state tracing. This enables you to measure or plot FIU states and therefore to monitor the time from a change in FIU state to any other event, such as the detection of the fault. 

Faults on Multiple Signals

SCALEXIO supports the simultaneous insertion of multiple faults during simulation to allow fault classes such as broken wire, short circuit to ground or UBAT, or short between channels. This function can be enabled in ConfigurationDesk for channels without current enhancement. 

Additional Fault Insertion Units for Customized Systems

For the customized system, additional types of fault simulation are available in addition to SCALEXIO Fault Simulation. This enables you to tailor the system to your project-specific requirements. The fault simulation for customized sytems can be remotely controlled with the ControlDesk Failure Simulation Module or, optionally, with AutomationDesk.

Fault Simulation Variant 1

Variant 1 for fault simulation on SCALEXIO supports fault simulation on all ECU input and output pins. All digital and analog I/O boards from dSPACE can be used for fault simulation. The relay boards (DS291) for fault simulation can be used on their own for fault simulation on sensor signals (ECU inputs) or in conjunction with load boards (DS281) on actuator signals (ECU outputs). Fault relays are controlled via a serial RS232.

Fault Simulation Variant 2

The second fault simulation variant uses a central relay switching matrix (DS293) for fault simulation on ECU inputs and outputs. Five different system potentials (for example, Terminal 30, Terminal 31, Terminal 15) can be switched on three different rails via load modules (DS282). Further devices that can be connected, including various measurement devices (Meas0-4), an electronic source (Source), and Rsim modules for transition impedance. Fault simulation is controlled via a CAN interface. 

High-Current Fault Simulation

The high-current fault simulation unit on SCALEXIO supports fault simulation on ECU inputs and outputs. One FIU controller card (DS5355) supports up to 19 signal channels on two high-current FIU relay trays (DS5390). Due to its modularity, the FIU controller card can be expanded to increase the number of channels. These relay trays allow for faults with currents up to 50 A and voltages of up to 300 V. The FIU is controlled from ControlDesk via a serial RS232 or CAN.

Product Information