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Automotive Simulation Models (ASM)

Real-Time Models for Vehicle Development

ASM is a tool suite for simulating combustion engines, vehicle dynamics, electric components, and the traffic environment. The open Simulink models are used for model-based function development and in ECU tests on a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulator.

  • 10 Years of ASM

    In celebration of this anniversary, 10 years of ASM, this retrospective timeline shows all the important ASM development milestones and many fascinating projects that renowned manufacturers have completed over the years with our simulation models.

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  • All You Can Test

    Developing modern driver assistance systems involves an ever-growing amount of data which must be processed in real time. Hyundai MOBIS uses a HIL setup that is based on dSPACE SCALEXIO and can develop and test multiple driver assistance systems at the same time.

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  • Top Performer

    One thing is for certain: If you start a large high-performance gas engine with a suitable generator, you are the best-motorized employee on site – at an electric power of up to 4,500 kW. Such powerful machines are used primarily for the stationary generation of energy and heat. Caterpillar Energy Solutions developed an entirely new control to ensure that future energy plants remain effi cient, dynamic, and maintenance-friendly.

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  • Quick Multi-Platform Tests

    The scope of testing is growing, the number of platforms to be tested is rising, but time and resources remain scarce. Can this confl ict be solved? According to Chinese automobile manufacturer Brilliance, it’s all a matter of efficiency, so they rely on a fully equipped simulator system from dSPACE.

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  • Eyes on the Road

    Powerful tool chain for validating driver assistance systems

    Well-coordinated tools for simulation, testing and visualization are indispensable in validating modern driver assistance systems. Developers need a quick, easy way to model the properties of the vehicle under test, as well as road networks, traffic and electronic control units (ECUs), and to visualize driving maneuvers realistically. Together, the Automotive Simulation Models (ASMs), ModelDesk and MotionDesk from dSPACE form a perfectly coordinated tool chain.

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  • Virtual Winter Tests

    No modern vehicle ever reaches the market without first undergoing exhaustive tests. And test vehicles alone are no longer enough to test the complex electronic control units. This job is performed by simulation models, which shift ECU development into the virtual reality of a virtual vehicle. Dr. Hagen Haupt, head of dSPACE's Modeling Group, explains how the dSPACE simulation models are meeting this challenge.

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  • Efficient Vehicle Dynamics Development via Simulation-Based Prognosis Tools

    This paper presents a method for designing and tuning suspensions purposefully and quickly with the help of vehicle dynamics simulation. The method is based on the Automotive Simulation Models (ASMs) from dSPACE, which have been extended for this use case. The ASMs support design engineers through all phases, from creating a virtual prototype up to close-to-production fine tuning during the test phase. This paper describes the necessary properties of the vehicle dynamics model that go beyond the functional scope of common handling models. At Daimler AG, the ASMs accompany the development during test drives, both for the pure vehicle dynamics design of the vehicle and for coupling the vehicle dynamics control systems to hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) systems.

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ASM: Simulation Tool Suite

The ASMs are a tool suite which consists of simulation models for automotive applications that can be combined as needed. The models support a wide spectrum of simulations, starting with individual components like combustion engines or electric motors, to vehicle dynamics systems, up to complex virtual traffic scenarios. The models can be handled easily and intuitively with ModelDesk, the graphical user interface.


Simulation Areas

  • Combustion engines (gasoline, diesel)
  • Vehicle dynamics (passenger car, truck, trailer)
  • Electric components (motors, batteries, loads)
  • Vehicle environment (road traffic, objects, traffic signs)


Benefits of ASM

The implementation of each model is open and traceable right down to the Simulink basic block level, so it is easy to supplement or replace components with customer-specific models. This means that the properties of each model can be optimally adapted to individual projects. The standardized interfaces of the ASMs make it easy to extend models and even create entire virtual vehicles. Road networks and traffic maneuvers can be easily and intuitively created using graphical parameterization tools with preview and clear visualization.


Main Features Description Key Benefits
Open Simulink models All model blocks are visible Application-specific models can easily be added or used to replace model components
Online simulation Real-time simulation on real-time hardware, e.g., DS1006 Hardware-in-the-loop simulations with production-level ECUs
Offline simulation Simulations as early as the controller algorithm design phase Controller validation in early development stages
Online tunable parameters Direct parameter access during real-time simulations Online parameter optimizations and behavior studies
ASMSignalBus Simulation signals are part of a structured Simulink signal bus Standardized and fast access to model variables
Model interoperability ASM models are easy to combine to create a virtual vehicle An entire virtual vehicle can be simulated


Combustion engines

The ASM engine models are ideal for developing and testing engine and exhaust gas aftertreatment ECUs. They simulate a combustion engine, including all the necessary components, as a controlled system for the ECUs. There are models for diesel and gasoline engines with different injection systems and exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. The real-time simulations can be performed with mean-value models or with physical models.

Vehicle Dynamics

The ASM Vehicle Dynamics Model is an excellent basis for developing and testing vehicle dynamics ECUs, such as ESP, steering and active damping ECUs. They are ideal for vehicle dynamics investigations in early development phases. Models for passenger vehicles, trucks and trailers are available. A user interface lets users configure the vehicles and define maneuvers and roads graphically.

Electrical Components

Vehicle electrical systems, electric drives and inverters, as well as starter batteries and high-voltage batteries, are all virtualized precisely by the simulation model for electric components. The model supports tasks such as developing and testing hybrid ECUs, battery management systems and indicator light controls. Users can parameterize the modeled components graphically to fit the real controlled system exactly.

Driver Assistance Systems

A comprehensive traffic model with road users and environmental objects is available for developing and testing driver assistance systems. The various sensor models in the simulated test vehicle detect the other road users and also the static and dynamic objects in the virtual environment. The traffic scenarios and the environment are easily defined graphically.

Model Design Philosophy

To offer the best possible support for customer-specific requirements, dSPACE has chosen an open model concept. You can view the models right down to the level of standard Simulink blocks. The dSPACE Automotive Simulation Models therefore provide enormous flexibility for projects that require dedicated simulation models. The open model approach allows perfect adaptation to individual projects and requirements. This is done by modifying models or by replacing and adding modeled components.


Virtual Vehicle

dSPACE Automotive Simulation Models are a collection of well-coordinated models that you can easily combine to build anything from extended models to a whole virtual vehicle. In addition to gasoline and diesel engines, there are models for vehicle dynamics and brake hydraulics, electric systems, and traffic. Combined models work together in one simulation.

Offline and Online Simulation

The Automotive Simulation Models (ASMs) can be used together with real controllers in a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) environment (online mode) or for vehicle simulation together with software control algorithms in dSPACE VEOS® (PC, offline mode). The models are available in three versions and license types for both online and offline simulation: ASM Developer, ASM Operator, and ASM Runtime. They either support code generation with MathWorks Real-Time Workshop® and dSPACE RTI or exist as run-time models with precompiled code.

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